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This is a book for engineers concerned with jitter: the e ects of noise visible in the time domain. The material presented will be helpful for work at both the system level and the circuit level: At the system level, the challenge is to describe, specify, and measure time domain uncertainty and when necessary, relate jitter to phase noise speci cations in the frequency domain. At the circuit level, the challenge is to design low noise circuitry within power, area, and process constraints so that ultimate performance meets system level requirements. Throughout the book concepts are presented in the context of an - gineering application requiring low jitter performance: the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) used in a phase-locked loop (PLL). Techniques are presented for circuit-level design of low jitter delay elements for use in ring oscillators, as well as relating the circuit-level characteristics to system-level performance. Although the emphasis is on time-domain (jitter) measures of oscillator p- formance, a simple method of translating performance to frequency domain (phase noise) measures is presented as well. Structure of this Book This book is divided into nine chapters. The diagram on the following page shows the relationship between material in each chapter as well as placement in the system-level vs. circuit-level design hierarchy. Wherever possible, - perimental veri cation is presented in the same chapter as the corresponding theoretical development, rather than being isolated in a separate chapter.
From Azzedine AlaÃ¯a, CristÃ³bal Balenciaga, and Coco Chanel, to Alexander McQueen, Yves Saint Laurent, and Vivienne Westwood, a centuryâ€™s worth of fashion greats from the permanent collection of The Museum at the Fashion Institute of Technology are celebrated in this limitededition volume. Photographs of over 500 garments selected from the Museumâ€™s permanent collection illuminate each of the featured designers, while texts by the curators explain why each designer is important in fashion history and what is special about the individual pieces featured.
A recent technological advance is the art of designing circuits to test themselves, referred to as a Built-In Self-Test (BIST). This idea was first proposed around 1980 and has grown to become one of the most important testing techniques at the current time, as well as for the future. This book is written from a designer's perspective and describes the major BIST approaches that have been proposed and implemented since 1980, along with their advantages and limitations. The BIST approaches include the Built-In Logic Block Observer, pseudo-exhaustive BIST techniques, Circular BIST, scan-based BIST, BIST for regular structures, BIST for FPGAs and CPLDs, mixed-signal BIST, and the integration of BIST with concurrent fault detection techniques for on-line testing. Particular attention is paid to system-level use of BIST in order to maximize the benefits of BIST through reduced testing time and cost as well as high diagnostic resolution. The author spent 15 years as a designer at Bell Labs where he designed over 20 production VLSI devices and 3 production circuit boards. Sixteen of the VLSI devices contained BIST of various types for regular structures and general sequential logic, including the first BIST for Random Access Memories (RAMs), the first completely self-testing integrated circuit, and the first BIST for mixed-signal systems at Bell Labs. He has spent the past 10 years in academia where his research and development continues to focus on BIST, including the first BIST for FPGAs and CPLDs along with continued work in the area of BIST for general sequential logic and mixed-signal systems. He holds 10 US patents (with 5 more pending) for various types of BIST approaches. Therefore, the author brings a unique blend of knowledge and experience to this practical guide for designers, test engineers, product engineers, system diagnosticians, and managers.
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